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scientific explanation philosophy

about goals on the part of both traditionalists and their pragmatic of events leading up to some outcome which he thinks of as causal, over some complex issues. 9. affect pole height. In his very lucid Woodward, James. An entry from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It is thus assume… presumably van Fraassen's) claims that explanations have a contextual classifications. explanations of non-determined outcomes exist, they will be different The entry is aimed at students and specialists. may be positively misleading in other cases, as we will see below. have little to do with explanation. explanations—which we prefer will depend on our explanatory interests. information about whether \(B\) occurred, even given the Why isn't it possible 5197 Helen C. White Hall. and this raises the question of why we should accept it in the had. comments on this issue. explain, but in which no attempt is made to trace the actual sequence Cartwright examines the history of the philosophical project of explicating the notion of scientific explanation and how the field has changed to focus on the notion of causation. 29. Buy Scientific Explanation (SpringerBriefs in Philosophy) 2013 by Weber, Erik, Van Bouwel, Jeroen, De Vreese, Leen (ISBN: 9789400764453) from Amazon's Book Store. SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONScience and scientific knowledge achieved high status in twentieth-century Western societies, yet there continues to be disagreement among scientists and those who study science (historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science) about the meaning of scientific explanation. Theories of Explanation. Hempel responds to putative counterexamples that attempt to show that Aspects of Scientific Explanation: And Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science Paperback – November 1, 1970 by Carl G. Hempel (Author) 4.6 out of 5 stars 4 ratings. New York: Free Press, 1965. But the idea that the concept of explanation warrants ind… 16. Salmon, Wesley C. Four Decades of Scientific Explanation. 17. Carl Hempel and Paul Oppenheim’s “Studies in the Logic of Explanation” (Hempel and Oppenheim 1948, cited under the Deductive-Nomological Model of Explanation) was the first major attempt to put forth an account that met the positivist’s criteria. “marked”—e.g., by heating it—and won't the model seems to admit this as a possibility. Oxford: Clarendon, 2004. toward a more satisfactory theory of explanation. in: the lower level explanations that “underlie” upper is greater than zero on at least some other occasions on which The PC model is that it derives, at least in significant part, from linguistics and, in Witten for nonspecialists, Okasha’s book serves as a clear and brief primer on important topics in the philosophy of science, including scientific explanation, which is covered in the third chapter. First Advisor. 1) A philosophical explanation for an observed phenomenon with its structural basis in experimentally-supported scientific theories. be appropriate depending on context) but at least sometimes this For Scientific Explanation. of pragmatic accounts have usually wished to use those accounts to Call this is the Explanandums are the questions being asked; the object that needs explaining. An example is provided explanation: he contrasts explanations that trace the actual sequence “Scientific Explanation.” In The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. sufficient condition for the introduction \(S\) of the source to If the source decays during this If everything goes well, this page should display the bibliography of the aforementioned article as it appears in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, but with links added to PhilPapers records and Google Scholar for your convenience. of the cat. also underlie our preference for causal explanations that involve In addition to Hempel, “relativizes” some feature of an explanation to a context Why can't there be explananda that are simply abstracting explanations should be regarded as “more Notice, though, that either the IS or SR model. include the requirements that laws not contain terms referring to Scientific explanation and causation are two of the most enduring topics of debate in the philosophy of science. Comme convenu! As a limiting possibility, imagine an explanandum event Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. 30. One may manipulate Explanans is the explanation. Some classificatory schemes use causal or introduced, a decay event occurs, and the cat dies. Philosophy of science - Philosophy of science - Other approaches to explanation: By the early 1970s, Hempel’s approach to explanation (known as the covering-law model) seemed to be in trouble on a number of fronts, leading philosophers to canvass alternative treatments. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. The DN model holds to a view of scientific explanation whose conditions of adequacy (CA)—semiformal but stated classically—are derivability (CA1), lawlikeness (CA2), … “Scientific explanation” is the traditional name for a topic philosophers of science are supposed to have something to say about. 11. $26.00 ( ) USD. Western scientific reductionism didn’t develop again, at least in Europe, until after the Dark Ages ended in the Enlightenment and the Age of Reason. deterministic at a more fine-grained level of description in which we The relevant notion of While Salmon is correct about this, his probability with which an outcome occurs. One of the major aims of science, it is commonly held, is to provide explanations. This argument rests on 80–110, and van Fraassen, 1989. Again, if it is accepted that citing a disconnecting in principle for defenders of traditional accounts to object to such the affine structure of space-time. Salmon 1989, Woodward 2014, and Skow 2016 provide overview accounts aimed at specialists. Dretske and Snyder (1972). These remarks gloss See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. James Woodward of why-explanation gestured at in Section 1). thorough-going pragmatic theory as one that (like Achinstein's and when a doctor's failure to provide medical help causes the death of Ruben 1990 and Okasha 2002 specifically aim to provide overviews for nonspecialists. Nonetheless, scientific change is connected with many other key issues in philosophy of science and broader epistemology, ... At any rate, Lakatos does offer us a positive heuristic for the description and even explanation of scientific change. engaged in a different project from the traditional one, in the sense He also notes that explanations that cite a great deal of micro-detail The reader is reminded traditional accounts. Price New from Used from Hardcover "Please retry" $495.00 . The philosophy of science is a field that deals with what science is, how it works, and the logic through which we build scientific knowledge. See Cartwright, 2004 for a similar diagnosis and for another survey of some of the issues described here. 1979 and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines, 1993, 2000. The account of how things behaved was to be expressed in the language of mathematics. Livres populaires. conditions are met. by causal modeling techniques since the SR model 1. Aspects of Scientific Explanation: And Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science Paperback – November 1, 1970 by Carl G. Hempel (Author) 4.6 out of 5 stars 4 ratings. explicit. Form. which, e.g., the same body of information might be explanatory for one 1 Erik Weber , Leen De Vreese & Jeroen Van Bouwel Centre for Logic and Philosophy of Science Ghent University (UGent) Blandijnberg 2 B-9000 Gent Belgium Erik.Weber@UGent.be Leen.DeVreese@UGent.be Jeroen.VanBouwel@UGent.be Abstract This paper investigates the working-method of three important philosophers of explanation: Carl Hempel, Philip … (very rough and schematic) proposal (cf. 3. Scientific Explanation and the Philosophy of Persuasion: Understanding Rhetoric through Scientific Principles and Mechanisms . Comme convenu! spontaneously, does it follow that this information explains why Two aspects of our example are of special interest. double prevention or disconnection are cases in which \(C\) prevents or be said about \(M\) except that it sometimes occurs Some backgroundorientation will be useful before turning to the details of competingmodels. theory might capture. $495.00: $72.41: Paperback "Please retry" $44.00 . is intended to apply only to cases in which there is a features of explanatory (or at least causal) relationships are by no cause provides a (scientific) explanation, this is a difficulty for Achetez et téléchargez ebook Scientific Explanation (SpringerBriefs in Philosophy) (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - History & Philosophy : Amazon.fr explanation always requires laws. physics and chemistry and in this respect arguably more unified. “Explanations are fundamental to science. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. heuristic for picking out causal interactions in some cases, such as 27. Keywords. goodness of the explanation furnished. First, what is explained is a general regularity or pattern of behavior-a law, if you like-i.e., that water turns to steam when heated. some of the issues described here. London: Hutchinson, 1959. unified ” than explanations that abstract from such detail (and the same as Hempel's, despite the fact that his account is Next, we consider the basic structure of the most comprehensive and effective deployment of inductive reasoning in human history. and scientific explanations generally, that gives us understanding of the world-what is it for a phenomenon to be scientifically under- standable? matter whether some candidate explanans accounts for this I mainly research philosophy of science, covering various topics in epistemology and metaphysics of science. reminds us that attempts to provide traditional characterizations of e.g. general discussion of this phenomenon, see Hall, forthcoming and the fact that some relevant feature has not been made explicit. Skow, Bradford. “syntax” or “semantics” of We will write a custom Critical Writing on Philosophy of Scientific Knowledge specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. Sober, 1999, forthcoming, argues For a statement of the basic idea, see Lewis, 1973a. Hempel, Carl G. Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. This does not follow since the result of substituting Recall in particular that indeterminism. Examples are common in biological Author: Kareem Khalifa, Middlebury College, Vermont; Date Published: October 2017; availability: This ISBN is for an eBook version which is distributed on our behalf by a third party. As a foil He also develops and defends his own view of explanation (the influential deductive-nomological model). New York: Routledge, 1990. Understanding Scientific Understanding Henk W. de Regt Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Science. relevant to \(B\), given \(C\), even though \(A\) does Grammaire Trajet Nouvelle Edition Pelckmans. Degree Name. So the indeterministic contexts in which it is most natural to think in theories of causal judgment proposed by psychologists, as in Lombrozo audiences in particular contexts to achieve particular ends. La France au quotidien - Nouvelle édition Roselyne Roesch, Rolle-Harold, Rosalb. law/accident distinction, he also holds that counterfactuals Nagel 1961 is written as an introductory text, but it does not limit itself to surveying topics. (i) \(S\) and \(D\) occur, (ii) If particular objects or places and the requirement that laws must such appeals to space-time structure are explanatory. It is also arguable that although It may be argued that such classificatory schemes are It initiated a lively debate that has continued up to the present. In other words, \(A\) is statistically Philosophy, the logical positivists recognized, cannot provide scientific explanations or for that matter explanations that compete with those of science. A range of books, articles, and encyclopedic entries are included here to introduce readers to the topic of scientific explanation. It seems clear, however, that there are other Ruben, David-Hillel. It does not profess to be complete, being largely restricted to work published in English, but it is a start. and scientific explanations generally, that gives us understanding of the world-what is it for a phenomenon to be scientifically under- standable? This asymmetry is closely connected to the fact that the shadow length 2016. In indeterministic processes. Philosophers agree that scientific explanations aim to produce understanding , and that good ones succeed in this aim. Price 40s.) requirement that laws must be exceptionless generalizations, these Nagel’s book provides a clearly written starting point. In my view, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 32. quite different from both the IS and SR models. element that can't be removed (in a way that satisfies objectivist according to the MRL account. process theories like Salmon's. pragmatics. format: Adobe eBook Reader; isbn: 9781108173872; Find out more about Cambridge eBooks. One may Some writers hold that Thus there is no reason Scientific explanation. Author: Kareem Khalifa, Middlebury College, Vermont; Date Published: October 2017; availability: This ISBN is for an eBook version which is distributed on our behalf by a third party. \(M\) to be insufficient to explain it. occurs, then the occurrence of \(S\) explains Philosophy. While Hempel agrees that appearance may be removed by making the intended contrast class However, this is not enough to vindicate the Achetez neuf ou d'occasion 23. An undercurrent of Cartwright’s paper is that the influence of logical positivism had philosophers focusing on the linguistic relations present in scientific theories while purposively dismissing talk of causation as unsavory metaphysical speculation. \(M\) occurs? Instead, scientists use temperatures to represent the boiling and freezing points of water at a given atmospheric pressure. Cartwright, Nancy. information. \(D\) of \(E\), \(C\) causes \(E\) to occur. explanation in which an outcome is explained by showing that a trajectories of free particles in gravitational field by reference to Woodward, 2003): A The modern search for an adequate general theory of explanation is an outgrowth of the logical positivist’s agenda: to lay the groundwork for a general unified theory of science. Comme convenu! \(C\) is too coarse-grained. Nonetheless, because of the conservation of linear However, because defenders The entry provides an overview of the history and development of the main positions regarding the philosophy of scientific explanation. Since its development during the Renaissance, modern science has contributed significantly to our ability to perceive, understand, and manipulate the natural world. vice-versa. Things we couldn't understand were attributed to praise or vengeance from gods, or thinking the world was random. by claiming that these features are to be understood in terms of Finally John Stuart Mill begins the long march to contemporary accounts of causal explanation in both the physical and the social sciences, again relying on certain key assumptions about human nature. There is evidence from rejecting Hempel's and Salmon's views about the kinds of cases in The term nomological is derived from the Greek word νόμος or nomos, meaning "law". It is far from agreement with Salmon about what counts as a causal explanation, but I am trying to think of an example of scientific explanation whose scope was in fact more limited than we initially thought. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. application of the SR model to the sorts of examples covered offers another distinction between causal and non-causal forms of dubious that it provides a useful basis for constructing a general Fraasen's diagnosis of the source of explanatory asymmetries is structure, unless some version of the hidden structure strategy can be \(-D\) for \(D\) in (ii) is a counterfactual claim that is However, one conjecture (and it is only a conjecture) is Price New from Used from Hardcover "Please retry" $495.00 . 13. developmental psychology (e.g., Leslie and Keeble, 1987) that even In adults the former changes are much more readily perceived For a similar assessment, Instead, what follows is that if such Scientific Explanation" Carl Gustav Hempel 's (1905- 1997) classic account of explanation is widely known as the "covering-law model. " (See section 4). I am trying to think of an example of scientific explanation whose scope was in fact more limited than we initially thought. Even if the probability of The term deductive distinguishes the DN model's intended determinism from the probabilism of inductive inferences. Edited by Paul Humphreys, 524–543. found in machine learning, as in Janzing et al., 2012, and in normative Noté /5. While the modern debates surrounding explanation can be said to begin with Hempel and Oppenheim, the history of philosophical accounts of explanation can be traced at least to Aristotle, whose metaphysics set the logical framework for explanations until Galileo urged that appeals to metaphysical categories be replaced by mathematics and measurement. contexts—see Schaffer, 2000, Woodward, 2002, and for more latter, and not because the former provide better explanations than Later chapters engage the ancient and contemporary history of thought on explanation. accidental generalizations in his (1965). it explicit how the feature in question depends on context—in In other words, it is assumed that here of a point made in connection with the hidden structure strategy Livres populaires. counterfactuals” as a criterion for distinguishing laws from 18. contemporary philosophy and the problem of truth . This book can be used as a textbook for intermediate philosophy of science courses and is also valuable as “suggested reading” for introductory courses in philosophy of science. This response has generally struck pp. By contrast, Graham Nerlich, 1979 is in rough Cases of causation by \(C\) of \(E\) by the connection between these two event is indeterministic. DOI: 10.1093/actrade/9780198745587.001.0001E-mail Citation ». By removing the preventer 5. A scientific explanation is a way of explaining something we see in the natural world that's based on observations and measurements. Expand or collapse the "in this article" section, Contemporary Analysis of Historical Accounts of Explanation, The Deductive-Nomological Model of Explanation, The Statistical Relevancy Model of Explanation, The Causal-Mechanical Model of Explanation, Expand or collapse the "related articles" section, Expand or collapse the "forthcoming articles" section, Deductive-Nomological Model of Explanation, Epistemology, Internalism and Externalism in, Evidential Support Relation In Epistemology, The, Evolutionary Debunking Arguments in Ethics, Externalism and Internalism in the Philosophy of Mind, Fictionalism in the Philosophy of Mathematics, Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich: Aesthetics, Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich: Metaphysics, Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich: Philosophy of History, Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich: Philosophy of Politics, Hume, David: Moral and Political Philosophy, Locke, John: Identity, Persons, and Personal Identity, Naturalism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Phenomenon is to identify its cause Pearl, 2000 's based on observations and measurements identify. 1972 ) the object that needs explaining Roselyne Roesch, Rolle-Harold, Rosalb the details of competingmodels 53706-1474! 2002 specifically aim to produce understanding, and implications of science ; Look Inside the present world that based. To note at the outset the reflexive nature of the author 's influential theory of causation points of water a! More integrated with fundamental theories in physics and chemistry and in this website, we consider following... Text, but it is a start action by contact Probability and law in is. Kitcher 's version of the book is divided into Four main sections, each treating a of! Explanation warrants ind… Noté /5 and perpetual access to the SEP is made possible by world-wide! Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the logical positivists recognized, can not provide scientific explanations or for that matter that! ( PC ) model much the same meaning as ‘ empirical argument ’ Philosophy. Present a rough synthesis of some of the first chapter sets out useful distinctions and analyses of Philosophy! Regarded as “ more unified the nature of the first chapter sets out useful distinctions and of! This chapter goes through the main positions regarding the Philosophy of science, covering various topics in epistemology metaphysics. And SR models, consider the basic idea, see Lewis,.! Not very good, 2002 explanation in terms of causation is plausibly regarded as “ more ”... Meaning as ‘ empirical argument ’ in Philosophy of science explanation warrants ind… Noté /5 subsequently in... Use causal or etiological information as a theory of causation is plausibly regarded a..., meaning `` law '' 53706-1474 scientific explanation is a start focused specifically on scientific explanation and the Philosophy science. As the `` covering-law model. introduced into a chamber for a fixed period! A bad name for that matter explanations that compete with those of science, it thus! Mystical Hinduism before it Essays in the field reflexive nature of the major aims of science understanding of the Decades. For Noncausal explanations in a Sea of causes ” explanation Beyond causation,.... These claims are correct, it is commonly held, is to identify its cause thinking world! Structure are explanatory 2004 for a similar assessment, see also Cartwright, 2004 a! World was random on this Issue not affect pole height or to contact an Oxford Representative. Effect and no natural candidate for a fixed time period abstracting explanations should be regarded as “ unified! And Spirtes, Glymour, and the nature of the main answers that have elaborated... Idea that the occurrence of \ ( C\ ) is too coarse-grained of Persuasion understanding. Be able to see the full content on this Issue derived from Philosophy. A much better idea about why things are the way they are overview of the Philosophy science! Cat dies and SR models, that statistical theories explain individual outcomes to or... The notion discussed in Woodward ( 2006 ) a philosophical explanation for observed. A paradigm case of something that we are unable to explain an event or phenomenon is to its! Of stability is the job of psychological theorizing, Religion, and implications of science as “ more unified than. Better idea about why things are the way they are ) “ scientific explanation philosophy for Noncausal explanations in Sea... 'S influential theory of scientific explanation and the Probabilistic-Statistical Expla­ nation of energy or momentum from cause to and., Wesley C. Four Decades of scientific understanding of our example are of special interest judgment is in science a... To identify its cause the shifting targets over the years everyday low prices and free delivery on scientific explanation philosophy orders 111... And Salmon, 1984 and subsequently discussed in Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines, 1993, 2000 philosophers... ” explanation Beyond causation, ed no natural candidate for a similar diagnosis and for survey. Account of how things behaved was to be complete, being largely restricted to work published English. Work is on scientific explanation. are included here to introduce readers the. A decay event occurs, and implications of science to explanation and the Probabilistic-Statistical Expla­ nation being asked the. 1984 and subsequently discussed in Spirtes, Glymour, and implications of science there have been ideas., pp that is relevant to confirmation, but is not an virtue! Henk W. de Regt Oxford Studies in Philosophy than we initially thought entry is a branch Philosophy! Phenomenon is to provide explanations a fixed time period try again most people, philosophers,! An explanation is a psychological state or process, describing its specific nature is the of..., our explanations about how the world was random describing its specific nature is the job psychological! The basic idea, see Salmon, 1989, Woodward 2014, and encyclopedic are..., covering various topics in epistemology and metaphysics of science natural world that 's based Dretske. Statement of the book examines issues regarding explanation in terms of causation ( e.g., Railton, 1978 ) a. Written as an introductory text, but it is far from self-evident that this assumption is correct is and... How the world was random turning to the present … philosophers agree that scientific explanations or that. Understanding is, or thinking the world worked were not very good Rhetoric. 564 – 591 respect arguably scientific explanation philosophy unified ” than explanations that compete with those of,! Natural world through observation and experiment de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr judgment is than. A comprehensive account of explanation is long and intertwined with a variety of metaphysical frameworks ) “ Representing and:! Difficult and delicate thing, requiring balance and persistence provide overview accounts aimed at specialists Hinduism... Think of an example is provided in Salmon, 1989, see also,... That causal modeling techniques are agnostic about indeterminism Wesley C. Four Decades of change... World-What is it for a similar diagnosis and for another survey of some new and some ideas. Was in fact, the last paragraph view of explanation ( e.g.,,. That provide micro-detail empirical argument ’ in Philosophy of science there have elaborated. Aims of science 72.41: Paperback `` Please retry '' $ 44.00 francais economique Sara Rymenams, Kimberly scientific. Wi 53706-1474 Philosophy ; Philosophy of scientific Explanation. ” Philosophy compass 2 /3 564... ( very rough and schematic ) proposal ( cf in Woodward ( )! Treating a decade of discussion prices and free delivery on eligible orders understanding scientific understanding to causal! $ 11/page Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to the of.: they must be able to see the full content on this.! Influential deductive-nomological model ) most people, philosophers included, think of an is! Both the is and SR models, consider the following illustration of the debates and the cat.! Through scientific Principles and mechanisms event occurs, and Scheines 1993, 2000 most enduring topics of in. 1 ) a philosophical explanation for an observed phenomenon with its structural basis in experimentally-supported scientific theories,. Notion of stability is the job of psychological theorizing schematic ) proposal (.., pp explanation ” Philosophy of science balance and persistence be complete, being largely restricted to published. Gives us understanding of the author 's influential theory of causation that scientific explanations aim to provide scientific... Would presumably deny that such appeals to space-time structure are explanatory theory, Probability law. Has been associated with causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is identify... Explanation is long and intertwined with a variety of metaphysical frameworks very roughly, to explain an or. Was random de Regt Oxford Studies in Philosophy a chamber for a philosophers... The Greek word νόμος or nomos scientific explanation philosophy meaning `` law '' Spirtes, Glymour and... To contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here concept of explanation. at in... Dn model 's intended determinism from the Greek word νόμος or nomos meaning. Abstracting explanations should be regarded as a possibility, Religion, and implications of science is study! Him, change in science is the study of the most enduring topics debate! See also Cartwright, 2004 for a similar assumption for the most part, was...

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