Public beaches, swimming pools, some pedestrian bridges, drive-in cinema parking spaces, graveyards, parks, and public toilets were segregated. The election was held on 27 April 1994 and went off peacefully throughout the country as 20,000,000 South Africans cast their votes.  Apartheid was adopted as a formal policy by the South African government after the ascension of the National Party (NP) during the 1948 general elections. These people were then issued passports instead of passbooks. The South African activist and former president Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) helped bring an end to apartheid and has been a global advocate for human rights. After the re-acceptance of South Africa's sports teams by the international community, sport played a major unifying role between the country's diverse ethnic groups.  With the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony, racial policies and laws which had previously been relatively relaxed became increasingly rigid, discriminating specifically against black Africans, in the last decade of the 19th century. The aim was to ensure a demographic majority of white people within South Africa by having all ten Bantustans achieve full independence.  Adjustments were made such that the NP controlled 77 of these seats. Apartheid was to be the basic ideological and practical foundation of Afrikaner politics for the next quarter of a century.  Cheap labour was the basis of the economy and this was taken from what the state classed as peasant groups and the migrants. Government agents assassinated opponents within South Africa and abroad; they undertook cross-border army and air-force attacks on suspected ANC and PAC bases. In April 1960, the UN's conservative stance on apartheid changed following the Sharpeville massacre, and the Security Council for the first time agreed on concerted action against the apartheid regime. An Afrikaans word for ‘separation’ – literally, ‘separateness’ – apartheid was used to describe the discriminatory political and economic system of racial segregation which the white minority imposed on non-whites. , Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC), the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule.  The insurgent bases were usually situated near military installations of the host government, so that SADF retaliatory strikes hit those facilities as well and attracted international attention and condemnation of what was perceived as aggression against the armed forces of another sovereign state. They were classified as part of the Coloured racial group. While international opposition to apartheid grew, the Nordic countries – and Sweden in particular – provided both moral and financial support for the ANC.  The parliament met in a joint sitting and passed the Separate Representation of Voters Act in 1956, which transferred Coloured voters from the common voters' roll in the Cape to a new Coloured voters' roll. In addition to the continuing "black-on-black" violence, there were a number of attacks on white civilians by the PAC's military wing, the Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA).  This was confirmed by the British Colonial government in 1809 by the Hottentot Proclamation, which decreed that if a Khoikhoi were to move they would need a pass from their master or a local official. To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835, which effectively changed the status of slaves to indentured labourers. The 1980s became a period of considerable political unrest, with the government becoming increasingly dominated by Botha's circle of generals and police chiefs (known as securocrats), who managed the various States of Emergencies.. Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act (1995).  This was the same for South Africans of Malaysian descent who were also classified as part of the Coloured race and thus considered "not-white". This was due mostly to the intense rivalry between the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) and the ANC and the eruption of some traditional tribal and local rivalries between the Zulu and Xhosa historical tribal affinities, especially in the Southern Natal provinces. More overtly, a group of White intellectuals met the ANC in Senegal for talks known as the Dakar Conference.. Public Safety Act (1953) The National Party (NP) governments enforced Apartheid, through legislation, in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. Media restrictions were lifted and political prisoners not guilty of common law crimes were released.  The apartheid government supported the US-led North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), as well as its policy of regional containment against Soviet-backed regimes and insurgencies worldwide. For other uses, see, Sign designating a public space as "for use by white persons", Segregation in countries by type (in some countries, categories overlap), International recognition of the Bantustans, Reforms and contact with the ANC under Botha, International legal, political, and social uses of the term, Blacks could never acquire land in white areas.  According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed by Asians and Coloureds, then black Africans. Apartheid forced nonwhite South Africans, which was the majority of the population, to live in separate areas from the … Many were also tied to South Africa economically because of their migrant labour population working down the South African mines. , Pope John Paul II was an outspoken opponent of apartheid. The "baasskap" (white domination or supremacist) faction, which was the dominant faction in the NP, and state institutions, favoured systematic segregation, but also favoured the participation of black Africans in the economy with black labour controlled to advance the economic gains of Afrikaners. South Africa - South Africa - Resistance to apartheid: Apartheid imposed heavy burdens on most South Africans. On 20 July 1985, Botha declared a State of Emergency in 36 magisterial districts. His expulsion of all Indian and Pakistani citizens in 1972—along ...read more, The Suez Canal is a man-made waterway connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea.  Its first recorded use was in 1929..  Early reforms were driven by a combination of internal violence, international condemnation, changes within the National Party's constituency, and changing demographics – whites constituted only 16% of the total population, in comparison to 20% fifty years earlier. This new legislation classified inhabitants into four racial groups: black, white, coloured and Indian. In 1990, negotiations were earnestly begun, with two meetings between the government and the ANC. It also abolished the seats of white representatives of black South Africans and removed from the rolls the few blacks still qualified to vote. In 1988, Israeli arm sales to South Africa totaled over $1.4 billion. , External South African military operations were aimed at eliminating the training facilities, safehouses, infrastructure, equipment, and manpower of the insurgents. Sharpesville convinced many anti-apartheid leaders that they could not achieve their objectives by peaceful means, and both the PAC and ANC established military wings, neither of which ever posed a serious military threat to the state. Hani enjoyed widespread support beyond his constituency in the SACP and ANC and had been recognised as a potential successor to Mandela; his death brought forth protests throughout the country and across the international community, but ultimately proved a turning point, after which the main parties pushed for a settlement with increased determination. Church leaders were not immune to prosecution, and certain faith-based organisations were banned, but the clergy generally had more freedom to criticise the government than militant groups did. As industry in Johannesburg grew, Sophiatown became the home of a rapidly expanding black workforce, as it was convenient and close to town. 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